The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream more than a physical medium. Packet switching could be used internally by backbone networks to take benefit of these traffic patterns, even although the backbone network could present a circuit-switching look to external hosts (see virtual circuit ). Traffic-pattern analysis may well be used to construct backbone networks that lessen specific network parameters, such as typical delay, circuit costs, etc.
First the ethernet address have to be translated into an ATM virtual circuit identifier for the circuit that leads from the edge switch to the edge switch nearest the location. Given its position at the top of the network hierarchy, two needs of the backbone topology are clear: it have to be reliable and it will have to scale. Gateways connect two or much more LANs that use the exact same or unique (ordinarily unique) information hyperlink and network protocols.
Switched Token Ring is similar to switched ethernet,in that a token ring switch replaces the token ring hub, providing a series of point-to-point connections from the computer systems to the switch rather of the regular shared circuit. 1 of the most prevalent uses of gateways is to allow LANs that use TCP/IP and ethernet to communicate with IBM mainframes that use SNA. Sales of token ring have declined in current years as additional and a lot more networks have switched to ethernet, which remains cheaper.
After the virtual circuit is ready, the LAN packet is broken into the series of ATM cells, and transmitted more than the ATM backbone working with the ATM virtual circuit identifier. Fiber Distributed Information Interface (FDDI) is a set of standards initially designed in the late 1980s for use in MANs (ANSI X3T9.five), but has because produced its way into backbone networks. The most popular boundary exactly where firewalls are applied is in between an organization’s internal network and the net.
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